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Archive for the ‘Period’ Category

Early mannerism

Depending on the historical account, Mannerism developed between 1510 and 1520 in either Florence, Rome, or both cities. The early Mannerists in Florence—especially the students of Andrea del Sarto: Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino—are notable for elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, and theatrical lighting. Parmigianino (a student of Correggio) and Giulio Romano (Raphael’s head assistant) were moving in similarly stylized aesthetic directions in Rome.  [ Read More ]


The word mannerism derives from the Italian maniera, meaning “style” or “manner”. Like the English word “style,” maniera can either be used to indicate a specific type of style (a beautiful style, an abrasive style) or be used to indicate an absolute that needs no qualification (someone ‘has style’). In the second edition of his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1568), Giorgio Vasari used maniera in  [ Read More ]


Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it, but Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century throughout much of Europe. Stylistically, Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists  [ Read More ]

Umberto Boccioni The sculpture that we can see in the monuments and exhibitions of Europe affords us so lamentable a spectacle of barbarism and lumpishness that my Futurist eye withdraws from it in horror and disgust. We see almost everywhere the blind and clumsy imitation of all the formulae inherited from the past: an imitation which the cowardice of tradition and the listlessness of facility have systematically encouraged. Sculptural art  [ Read More ]


Futurism was an international art movement founded in Italy in 1909. It was (and is) a refreshing contrast to the weepy sentimentalism of Romanticism. The Futurists loved speed, noise, machines, pollution, and cities; they embraced the exciting new world that was then upon them rather than hypocritically enjoying the modern world’s comforts while loudly denouncing the forces that made them possible. Fearing and attacking technology has become almost second nature  [ Read More ]

In the late 1840s, the exclusively British Pre-Raphaelite movement appeared in Victorian society in London. Three young students from the Royal Academy were the instigators – William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), John Everett Millais (1829-1896), and Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882). At that time, British painting was at an impasse, pinned down by strict conventions and restricted by the tastes of a clientele that delighted in small genre scenes, usually full of  [ Read More ]


In the mid 19th century, at the beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria, English painting had become bogged down in academic conventions and was at a creative impasse. Reacting against this, three young students from the Royal Academy, Hunt, Millais and Rossetti, founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Their aim was to create a new style of painting, no longer taking the Renaissance as their reference, but turning to medieval art  [ Read More ]


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